Garden Watering Automation

Automating my garden watering with a Raspberry Pi, solenoids and 24 volts of pure electricty.


I already have a quite extensive system of pipes set up to water my plants. The problem is that it's best to water plants low and slow in the morning under mulch, rather than high and fast in the evening with a beer and hose.

Watering early in the day is better for the plants from a mildew and fungal perspective as water doesn't sit against the plants for the whole day. Watering just before dawn also conserves moisture as it gets a chance to soak in and get to the roots before the sun is up.

With this in mind, I decided to automate my garden watering system using my Raspberry Pi so that I could water my garden at the right time of day from anywhere on the planet.

I should also point out that there is plenty of inspiration out there. I've found lots of great projects online which tackle this problem in similar ways. Open Sprinkler Pi really took my fancy, but I realised that because I already had a Pi and Grove, I didn't really need to buy a seperate controller.

If you'd like to use any of the code for this project, you can download it on github.

Update: January, 2018

I've recently modified my setup a little. While the plumbing is still the same, I've removed the GrovePi from the equation as it was becoming unreliable and would only work with frequent resets. Instead, I've used the ruby gem, `RPI_GPIO`, to directly connect my Grove Relays to the Raspberry Pi. This has had the added benefit that all the code for the project can be consolidated into the one `scheduler.rb` file instead of needing to make calls out to companion python scripts.

There are a few issues with the RPI_GPIO gem, the largest being that you can't install it on non-Raspberry Pi machines, but the improved reliability offsets this inconvenience. I'm sure I'll be able to find an alternative GPIO controlling gem that resolves this problem also.

For this project, I have used:

If you're considering this yourself, a word of warning

This probably won't save you money. It may not even save your garden.

For me, excluding the cost of the Pi and Grove (which I already had) the total cost of this experiment has probably been about $180AUD allowing $150 for plumbing supplies, $30 for additional power boards, ethernet cables etc. This actually isn't insane given that it will easily cost about $100 to buy a controller at your hardware shop and then you'll have to hand over more for solenoids, pipes, wires etc.

For me, the most important thing I've learnt through this project is the consequences actions can have when you move from the digital world into the real world. Most web developers and designers play in a world where the worst that can happen to them personally as a result of a failure in their decisions is that they get less conversions on a transactions, or their site goes offline for a few hours.

In this project, making a mistake could cost me my garden (which could die or be drowned) or damage the foundations of my house (if the manifold or pipes burst and spew water out, underneath my house, for days while I'm away from home).

Still, I'd recommend this regardless. It's been great fun. I hope if you do go down the automation route that this helps in some way.

This document is broken into four sections for easy reference, and the code is really simple. I'll try and keep the software concerns seperate as I build this project out over time so you can pick it up and use what you need without needing to understand lots of complicated code. I'll also try and remember to comment lots so it's easy to understand. Thank you to all the other open source projects that do this also! It's only because of the forethought and generosity of time others have given that I've been able to learn how to do any of this.


Using my existing watering system, essentially my goal was to create an intelligent hub through which the water flowed when I wanted to.

To do this, the mains water goes into the manifold, where it is then stopped by the solenoids. When the solenoid is opened by the relays attached to the RPi, the water flows. By default, the relays are closed and take electric current to keep them open. This works for me because it means that in the event of a power-failure I won't flood my house.

Although I felt quite confident about the plumbing side of things, one of the things I learnt through this process is that it's actually really hard to do plumbing if you care about slow drips. Also important is to consider that this is one of the few projects where you're combining water and electricity - two things that shouldn't really meet unless you're interested in entering the Darwin awards.

In order to avoid the Darwin awards, I put the solenoids in a box to contain any water explosions and splashes

My first attempt at building out the manifold used 19mm Poly pipes and joiners to connect things. This didn't work so well and burst just before I proudly demonstrated my new fool-proof internet-powered garden watering system to Andy Carson. The mains water pressure was too much for the plastic clips I used.

Attempt 1: Manifold made with Poly pipe

To solve this, I decided to replace the entire manifold and feeder system with more study rigid BSP pipes and steel screw-tightened clips wherever I moved into poly pipe.

Attempt 2: Proper PVC manifold and BSP threaded joiners

Here you can see all the pieces assembled and in their box in preparation for going into my shed.

All the pieces in one place before going into the shed

Once I put this in, I found that there was then an issue with the "Nut and Tail" joints I'd used at the end of the BSP. They leaked - I even cracked the plastic on one hand-tightening it so it wasn't going to last long. In the picture below you can see the failed unit on the bottom, and the replacement on the top.

Avoid these Nut and tail joints if you can

This is because it's difficult to get a tight enough seal as the joint is made in two pieces with a washer. I solved this buy replacing the Nut and tail with a BSP female threaded joint and one piece 19mm reducers.

The final inlet/outlet pipe joins showing metal clips and one piece solid reducers

Once I had this all assembled, I set up a cron job to trigger my watering system on and off for a minute at a time in order to pressure test and rock/jerk the system around a bit. Turning water one and off with a solenoid is quite a violent process (you'll hear it - there is quite a bit of pressure involved in mains water) and I think this is what caused my first iteration to fail. Turning it on and off rapidly means you get to i) see if it leaks and ii) hopefully accelerate any failure so you can fix it before you come to rely on it working properly.


From an electronics perspective, it took me a while to figure out what was needed. Thanks to by Grove Pi kit, I had a relay, but just no real idea how to use it. Also no idea how to avoid electrocute myself.

Enter many hours of youtube research and videos.

Through this research I found that I'd need to do the following:

Map of electronics used
  1. Connect the black wire to one of the cables from each solenoid (they have two each) and also to the transformer. This is the "power wire" and provides one half of the circuit needed to turn on the solenoid.
  2. The second wire (I chose red and white (shown as yellow) provides the "control" wire.
  3. The "control" wire is fed through the relay and then back to the second wire from the transformer. This way, when the relay is activated, the circuit is completed and the solenoid is able to activate (allowing water to flow).

Because water is being used in close proximity to electricity here, I wouldn't recommend doing this unless you felt pretty confident in your knowledge. There are a few things I did to keep myself safe.

  1. Most importantly: I did not plug in the transformer until I was sure there were no exposed wires
  2. I made sure that I put electrical tape over the ends of any exposed wires before I plugged anything in.
  3. The transformer I used for this project takes the 240VAC (240 Volts Alternating Current) found in an Australian powerpoint and drops it down to 24VAC. This is a much lower voltage (garden lights use 12VAC so that you don't die if you cut through a wire), but I'd prefer to be safer than sorry. Supposedly a 24V current can kill you if it gets under your skin.
  4. I put the solenoids (which were the piece most likely to come into direct contact with water) were inside a plastic tub. This way, if the solenoid failed or there was a leak, water wouldn't spay all over my shed, and would just dribble over the floor (turned out this safety feature was used :-) ).
  5. I ended up using these nifty little waterproof wire connectors. They are one used only, but flood themselves with a gel when used to create a water proof seal on the wires. This is important as although the solenoids shouldn't get wet when they're being used, as I found when I flooded mine, they can sometimes.

Putting it all together I ended up with a situation like this. Here you can see:

  1. Raspberry Pi and Grove Pi board on left inside green box.
  2. Input compartment bottom right for 7 core irrigation wire.
  3. First relay connected in it's own compartment (white wires)
  4. Wires taped waiting for second relay to arrive from Little Bird Electronics.
  5. Temperature/humidity sensor top right (for a seperate project)
  6. Holes for ethernet and USB-power to come into the green box to power and control the Raspberry Pi.


For me there were are a few challenges I have/will faced in this project.

Method & Progress

To help myself overcome some of these issues, I've broken the challenge down into some smaller steps to knock over one at a time. I'll keep this list updated as I go.

Code progress diary

6th Jan, 2017.

Be able to turn on and off the relay using a switch.

This was easy. I managed to do this using a built in Python script provided by the GrovePi Software

Be able to turn on and off the relay using a script, keeping it on for a few seconds, then turning it off.

This was also achievable using a modified version of the script. Basically, adjusting the sleep duration after turning the Relay "On" was enough to make this work.

7th Jan, 2017

Be able to turn the relay on at a defined time for a period of time (eg. at 3pm for 20 mins). Stop scripts from stomping on each other.


System - Set up a cronjob to run every n mins.

Ruby (scheduling, APIs) - Get and using Ruby. - If Hour and Min are within a target range at the time of checking, run a python script.

Python - Run an on script for a period of time. This would run for n minutes and then turn off. Eventually, I could probably set n using the duration of a google calendar item. - Close the script and python.

System - Restart

This would let me run most of the logic in ruby and only dive into Python when I need to toggle the systems on or off.


Got this working quite easily and much like the above.

I did run into a small issue whereby the Seed grove that I was using the control the relay would error and display a red RST light. Reading on the forums this is a relatively common issue with the board.

Apart from disconnecting the power, the only solution to the issue is to run a reset command for the board, which I've now put into a seperate ruby script so I can run it when I need to.

Another issue I've come across is that while the script seems to work all of the time, occasionally, the solenoid does not work. I'm not sure what could be causing this. It's either that the relay is not closing properly or that the solenoid isn't working. Potentially this could be to do with the mechanical components within the solenoid not making contact correctly, and therefore the solenoid circuit not being completed. Strangely it does not happen every time though.

The crontab is pretty simple. Every hour, at 5 minutes past the hour, run the schedule.rb file. If the hour is correct, run the script for the length of time provided in the original command parameter (in this case, 1800 seconds, or 30 minutes).

5 * * * * ruby /home/pi/Projects/garden/scheduler.rb 1800 >> /tmp/cron_output

Eventually I'll need to expand this to allow for more parameters - for example, zones (-z) or time (-t).

4:56pm, 7 Jan, 2017

Success. After assembling the solenoids, pi and watering systems, rewiring my shed with additional ethernet cables and bashing a hole through the tin side of my shed with a back-hoe, I've had my first successful test firing. I've been able to control the flow of water in my back garden safely using the internet! What a time to be alive. The joy, the wonder. Amaze.

The issue I found before whereby the solenoid would not fire has also seemingly resolved itself. Perhaps the solenoids work differently under pressure from the water than they do without this. Interesting.

My script also checks the time correctly in production, which is great.

My first trial only includes a single bed and I need one more relay before I can move onto the second step - controlling more than one zone. It's all wired up though, so should just be a question of ordering a few more relays (I suspect I want to move onto my garden lights next). I suspect the limiting factor for my beds will end up being water pressure. I also may need additional zones to cater to the fact that some plants need more water (usually vegetables) and some less (usually flowers and natives).

Monday 9th Jan 2017

Disaster strikes

Just before leaving, I was showing @arcarson went to look at the system and found that the three way manifold I'd created from poly pipe (leading from the mains and to the solenoids) had failed. This was due to the fact that the hoses before the manifold had popped off the valve due to the mains pressure. I was very glad this happened as it showed that my initial plumbing design had been flawed…if it hadn't failed when it did, my shed would've become even more flooded (the plastic box well and was overflowing with water when I found it).

I replaced the failed-manifold with one that was far better constructed, as well as the various connectors. This added $100 to the cost, but now I'm relatively confident that it won't burst again. I just need to remember to drain the irrigation system before winter sets in (and the pipes potentially freeze).

Note: Hardware list above has been updated.

Sunday 15 Jan 2017.

After being away at the beach for a week with only as neighbour to check on the system, I've returned home and there is neither water leaking everywhere or a dry garden. The system worked. Although I initially had the system watering for 1 hour at 5am, I decided to change this to 30 minutes.

The logs I set up were also of great use. I was able to check each morning to make sure that, at least according to the logs, the system had turned off each morning.


Ideas for next steps for this project include: